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Modern switch-mode power supplies include voltage regulation over a wide input range.
Over the years, I've heard many stories of wires getting crossed to produce a higher voltage, but I'm not aware of any such story that stands up to scrutiny.
Most commercially available surge protectors don't shut off if you supply them with 380V, but it will fry your electronics within moments.
The apparent cause was a falling branch pushing two cables together.This is precisely why I say such reports don't stand up to scrutiny - such an occurence could not cause a three-phase surge (which would require the neutral to be substituted by another live phase). If a live power cable touches a neutral cable, a circuit breaker will activate immediately (to protect the local transformer). In order for a power surge to result, the short circuit would have to both cut through the neutral cable and connect the live to the far side of the neutral cable faster than the circuit breaker could react but slower than about 20ms.
This is precisely why I say such reports don't stand up to scrutiny
Why can the neutral not have been touched by another live phase?
I cannot comment on what caused your power surge but I can say with 100% confidence that it wasn't caused by a tree branch forcing two wires together.