Weather is a snapshot of what you see outside on any one single day. Google's serps are a good example of today's SEO weather. The overall weather pattern is the climate. If you are building a home and the the weather is sunny today, you would still build a roof for your home because you know your climate will eventually have some daily weather containing rain.
When making SEO decisions be smart and don't overreact to Google's SEO weather aka the daily serps. You want to strategically respond to the SEO climate aka quality content, traffic generating backlinks, proper usability, etc. for the best chance of long term success. Listen to what Google is saying & not saying. Often when Google warns not to do something, it is often because an exploit is manipulating the serps and Google is trying to scare aware more people from adding to the exploit. I am not suggesting you chase after exploits though they can be quite profitable. I am suggesting you seek the deeper meanings of Google statements to better understand the SEO climate.
If you build for today's SEO weather, you will likely fail because by the time you are finished the weather has changed. Chasing after the latest updates is not usually the best idea. You generally want to take a more holistic approach and build the best site for the overall climate so you can get ahead and stay ahead of the updates. Reacting to the last weather report will more likely put your site in last place.