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Should I expect the new pages to be indexed at all? Should it take a week? Longer? What's your experience?
Also remember, just because a url is crawled doesn't mean that it will get into the index - that's a seperate step.
after a long time with an old sitemap.xml I submitted a new sitemap several days ago.
Just a guess, but infrequent updates might play a parat in crawling speed. Still, Google does love to try out new urls.