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1. Google certainly can recognize that IP addresses belong to akamai and treat them in a tailored way.
2. Google also has your domain history -- I think that could easily play into their treatment of your domain after going with Akamai.
Can you still GeoTarget?
Heck of a good question. I know that Akamai offers several levels of service. One of them delivers larger files like images and other media via an Akami IP address, but the html is still served from your IP. That scenario should not present a barrier.
But there are certainly other scenarios, and I am not conversant with all the variables. Does anyone here have more input or relevant experience?