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My robots.txt file contains the following:
The file validates using Brett's checker. Do I need to change the syntax of the URL to make this work?
Your robots.txt should prevent spiders from fetching your shopping cart pages as-is. However, Google will list any page it finds a link to, even without crawling that page. So, the answer depends entirely on what you mean by "cart pages getting indexed". Are these pages listed with a title and description, or is it just the URL that is showing in the SERPs?
In order to prevent the "list just the URL" scenario, the solution is counter-intuitive: You must allow Google to fetch the page, and then use the <meta name="robots" content="noindex"> tag on each page. In the case of a large site with dynamic URLs, this might be easiest done with a "light cloak" by redirecting SEs to a "noindex" page. Since there is no attempt to mislead a searcher, there should be no risk of penalty.
The "list just the URL" problem exists with Ask Jeeves/Teoma, as well as Google.