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A lot of the functionality you mention is not standardized -- it varies from browser to browser (and sometimes version to version) so you need to refer to the technical information posted on each browser's site. I don't know of any one place that has collected this kind of resource, but maybe someone else will.
In addition to varying from browser to browser, cache storage is subject to client settings, another ingredient in the stew. My guess is that rather than looking for an inclusive tutorial, you will need to research specific questions for the pages you are developing.
Tedster got it right. Generally images are stored in the cache in a FIFO (first in/first out) basis. The size of the cache is user setting. When the a new item is added to the cache, enough of the oldest stuff is discarded to make room.
Actually, it might be better if you stated the problem that you are trying to solve and we might have some ideas.