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I hope that makes sense, thanks in advance.
Having a robots.txt that prohibits real search engine spiders to go through your site mostly doesn't help to avoid backlinks. There are lots of bad bots out there masking as Mozilla or just not obeying the robots.txt. The only thing to handle this stuff is asking the site owners to remove the link. If they're stealing content, you can get the sites out by contacting the search engines.
I hope that met your question.