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Assuming your 'on page' content, title, h1s, etc have already been optimized, link development should be your focus. Without inbound links you'll continue to be unknown to the engines. Careful about how you 'acquire' your links and the rate at which you acquire them. Make it look natural and gradual with a good mix of PRs and sources - web sites, blogs, press releases, etc...
[edited by: ZydoSEO at 12:24 am (utc) on Aug. 12, 2008]
In order for a search engine to know your site exists you need to have liks pointing to your site. Think of a link as a road, not only can users find your site by travelling down this road, so can search engines.
When a search engine finds your site along a link, it classes this as a vote for your site from the linking site, this is why I recommend against link exchanges, if a site votes for you (links to you) and you return the vote (return link) then one vote pretty much cancels out the other.
You need to aim for one way links to your site, try and get the links from sites that are related, for example web directory categories that focus on your topic, topical directories and content sites that are based on the same theme as your own website.
Do not expect this process to be quick, it takes months for search engines to even list your site, let alone rank it. be prepared to wait several months before you see any results at all.
Hope this gives you some ideas.