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There are three distinct steps to consider: spidering, indexing, ranking. After a page is spidered, there's still no guarantee that it will be considered important enough to be included in the index. But once a page is indexed, then how long for good ranking is a matter of what the search phrase is.
For example, once a page is indexed, it will appear for a search on its full url - but few people except for the webmaster will ever do that search.
Similarly, for the domain example.com, most indexed pages will rank for the special operator search, site:example.com - but again, not all that exciting.
Ranking on other searches will cover a spectrum. For instance, ranking for low volume search phrases - especially those with quite a few words - can happen very quick after a page is indexed. But ranking can take years to achieve for very competitive searches (1-word or 2-words, high search volume, lots of ads on the SERP, money to be made).
What gets a page to rank well for those high-volume searches is a lot of what we discuss in this forum. The main key is many other websites appreciating the content so much that they link to it all on their own - what Google calls an "editorial" backlink.
Also it should be noted that if you have a new website, sometimes you can rank well for some mid-level search phrase rather early and then after a few weeks, that goes away. In those cases, it's not necessarily a penalty.
Rather, Google often allows a new site some high rankings early on just to see how their users appreciate it. This early period can be very useful in getting your content seen by those other important webmasters so they have a chance to like it and link to it.
One question, every time I do a quote search like "webmaster world", Google first returns like "there are 100 results(example :) )" but when I click the 10th result page, sometimes Google then tells me that "there are 36 results". So what's the real umber of results?
So, in one sense, the question of "what is the real number of results" cannot be answered. And in another sense, the "real" number is what you can actually see by clicking through all the results pages.