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I don't think so. We have a .co.uk hosted in the States and achieve top (very) competitive search positions before and after Jagger. If anything, we have improved since jagger, so my guess is there is no evidence of a problem.
If in doubt, search on a term peculiar to your site, and then use the 'UK only' option on google.co.uk.
If your site went down in SERPs post-Jagger, look at the list of things Jagger filtered sites on.
As for a Turkish .com ranking for Turkey-only searches while hosted in the USA, if the site is in the Turkish language, that's probably what's flagging it to Google as Turkish. Even if mainly in English, Google might be able to divine its content by the Turkish terms in it.
Also, the competition between, and number of, Turkish websites is not so high, compared to English ones.
Google is very good at classifying and ranking sites, or so I've heard :)
I wish that a geotarget meta tag would be introduced, or something along these lines, to avoid this. There are plenty of none .co.uk domains around that actively seek UK traffic and this would be beneficial to them all.
We are not ranking on google.co.uk only, which is where our target audience is, we were no3 before jagger. Do you think the move to the uk domain will help us a bit?
Is it possible to have a .co.uk domain pointing at an ip address in the UK, but keep your existing hosting account in the US?
Is this legal as regards google and the other search engines?
That is strange. There could be other factors at work. Have you got decent UK sites linking to you? If they are predominantly US sites maybe that is a problem. Have you a listing in Dmoz under the UK section or worldwide? A long shot but is your content using a lot of American spellings/placenames etc.? Is your whois data showing US addresses?
I had a .com on that server and it suffered, long before Jagger, for uk only searches, moved it to uk hosting IP problem solved.