It's frustrating for me, too, because, if you "like" a business you'd think it'd be easier to see information from those businesses, but, no, they are just as buried as Facebook wants them to be. I hate to say this, but, as a user wanting it for that purpose, it's almost pointless.
I think Facebook are doing what they can to "hide" business pages from users no matter what the user does. They don't want the page owner to get a free lunch and would rather they had to pay for exposure. I am seeing less and less activity from pages I actually "like" and seeing more content from promoted pages. To be honest this goes against the grain. If I like something I want to see it, read content from it and have it show up on my timeline. On the flip side, it is very frustrating to have built up likes and see no benefit from it, even paid likes are worthless (Bought through Facebook ads)
I have not checked this recently, but the last time I looked you would need to "follow" a page, not just "like" it if you wish to see their newest posts/updates. It might have changed along with other things, but that was implemented quite some time (over a year) ago. It's been described as the business page equivalent of "adding to Friends list".
I believe that's still the case, but I have to wonder just how many regular users are aware of this. Especially with such a high percentage of users either on the mobile site or using the mobile app, it's not an intuitive thing to do.
I think knowing what a user "likes" is just a way to profile a user and know what sort of promoted content to target him/her with.