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This specification defines an API for persistent data storage of key-value pair data in Web clients.
This specification introduces two related mechanisms, similar to HTTP session cookies, for storing structured data on the client side. [COOKIES]
The first is designed for scenarios where the user is carrying out a single transaction, but could be carrying out multiple transactions in different windows at the same time.
Cookies don't really handle this case well. For example, a user could be buying plane tickets in two different windows, using the same site. If the site used cookies to keep track of which ticket the user was buying, then as the user clicked from page to page in both windows, the ticket currently being purchased would "leak" from one window to the other, potentially causing the user to buy two tickets for the same flight without really noticing.