It looks like Google is still indexing our mobile pages, although I'm not sure how to see when the last visit by Googlebot was. Our webmaster tools are showing that our regular pages are restricted by Google's mobile crawl. Weird.
1) We do have user agent detection, so if the client is on a mobile device, they should see the mobile version of our site.
2) Good question, and something it looks like we need to get in order. www.example.com/mobile/<anything> is not properly redirecting to mobile.example.com/<anything>. In fact, we don't have an .htaccess file in the mobile folder, which we probably should. This could be making a huge mess, as Google could be seeing the same content on 3 different pages: www.example.com/<anything> www.example.com/mobile/<anything> mobile.example.com/<anything>
Could this be causing the bots to ignore robots.txt as well?