OMZen - 4:56 am on Dec 30, 2010 (gmt 0)
Exact "Google Algorithm" information is not available in public domain.
But there's a lot of literature available @ IR ( Information Retrieval )
You can Google for bill slawski, he's covered lot of patents related stuff on his blog.
You can also watch Googlewebmasterhelp channel on youtube, read posts on official Google blog/s to gain some insights into Google's perspective.