Website Stripper is a property in the browscap.ini file I offer for download on my website. I mark certain user agents as Website Strippers if they have a reputation for doing naughty things on your website like not respecting robots.txt. Then webmasters can look for that property and redirect the bot or whatever they want to do to it. Most of the web that uses browscap.ini is using my file since it's the only one that's regularly updated. Is the actual browser name showing up as Website Stripper?