no, there isn't. It doesn't matter how the bakery manages the counter space, as long as they sell cupcakes.
If a page is not returning 404 but 200, then the page exists (unless a technical error is involved). 404 is protocol specific and there are not "buts" about it, it means "not found", not "out of stock", "thin content" or whatever else Google thinks fits the case.
I don't see how anyone could applaud Google twisting basic network layer protocols just so they can tweak their own algo.
There's a big difference between a complete product page with an "out of stock" label in the corner where you place your order, and a page with no product-specific content.
No difference, as far as http is concerned. If the page exists, it doesn't matter to http if there is 1 word or 1,000. Now, there could be difference as far as Google ranking that page, but that's a totally unrelated topic.