Receptional_Andy - 12:07 pm on Jul 6, 2010 (gmt 0)
The characters after the # are not part of the URL and do not form part of the request that Google will send when spidering. I don't know quite how it would be handled, but my guess would be that Google would simply strip out that part and treat it much the same as a reference to the URL without it.
There is some internal processing of URL fragments by Google, however, so it's possible that it would be worthwhile to include. Unfortunately, there's not really anything in the way of "official" documentation for the canonical attribute.