Right now the index is a little snapshot of Google's crippling dysfunction when it comes to 301s and canonical pages. A rather large number of non-canonical URLs have been puked back into the index, and sometimes are taking the ranking position from the canonical domain, but even more strange, sometimes they are just added along with the canonical domain.
In other words, while example.com scores 13,817 points and ranks #3 [red widgets], also example.com/?iaiaius is scoring 13,817 and ranks #4 for [red widgets].
What a mess.
Yo, Google. 301 means "moved permanently" not "keep in the index permanently and display randomly".