penders - 2:17 pm on Oct 20, 2013 (gmt 0)
...but nothing native to the browser or OS.
Firefox does provide native support for assigning webmail services to the mailto: scheme. Unfortunately it doesn't appear to give you a nice GUI in order to configure this. As denisl mentioned, only Yahoo! Mail and Googlemail are selectable from the list. If you look at "Application Details..." you can see which URLs are used for these services, but it does not give you the option here to change them or add more.
However, I believe there are several plugins available that will allow you to add more services.
You can also have a look at the "under the hood" configuration settings (about:config) to change the current settings and possibly add more services yourself without too much trouble. Search for "mailto" and you will find what looks like the relevant settings:
gecko.handlerService.schemes.mailto.1.name - default - string - Googlemail
gecko.handlerService.schemes.mailto.1.uriTemplate - default - string - https://mail.google.com/mail/?extsrc=mailto&url=%s
%s would seem to be a placeholder for the mailto: email address.