If I buy a domain name that’s had a previous owner and that previous owner has been running a “Permanente redirect” on that domain to his other domain, can I get the domain name crawled and recognised by google or does google completely blank the domain name that’s been previously "permanently redirected"? If that makes sense?
Yes, Google will recrawl the domain being redirected and update the 301 target within their system.
In fact, within the last couple years [I don't recall exactly when] they started to delay transferring full ranking weight through a 301 until it has been in place long enough to "trust" because redirects are changed often. The process of a 301 being fully applied [as far as I can recall] can take up to 3 weeks.