Google essentially analyzes source code and not screen appearance. There is a small part of the algorithm that does simulate the screen appearance of a page - done so that the content area and its links get the most importance, and things like footer links are given less pop. Screen simulation is also part of Google's check for possible spam factors, such as hidden text.
So the answer is essentially no. Text justification is not a ranking factor.
Now if the page layout gives the visitor a bad time, then that dissatisfaction make create a domino effect: fewer natural links, no social media attention, things like that. So indirectly, the way text is justified may affect ranking, but that's IN-directly.
You want to make sure that the page is highly readable. Justified text on screen tends to be harder to read, because a browser does not currently have elaborate kerning functions the way that printed documents do.