There's no direct way that I know of using public Google queries. However, there are many such tools available and they're easily found through any search engine. We do not discuss or promote specific 3rd party tools here, but it's very easy to come up with a big handful of choices.
Also, Google offers at least some of that information inside your Webmaster Tools account. Look under:
Statistics > What Googlebot Sees > phrases in external links to your site ...and Statistics > What Googlebot Sees > keywords in external links to your site