Inner pages have more specific content - Title, description, body text and links, and yet these don't show up in G search results. The home page shows up in the results, even though it is optimized for only 3 keyword phrases. How do I get the inner pages to show up?
This is a relatively common scenario - unfortunately. With Google's focus on link text, sometimes the page holding the links is the one that ranks - especially when it's your home page, high PR and all that. One thing I've found that helps is a backlink or two from an external domain pointing directly to that inner page.
I'm having just the opposite problem. Google now seems to be devaluing the index page in some cases and ranking all the internal pages which have fewer links. Of course this leads to a lot of poorly ranked pages. The only thing I can figure out is where Universal Search is present they utilize this method to rank the internal pages of these monster sites and in some areas they don't.
Run Xenu LinkSleuth over your site and look at both the list of URLs as it scans, and the report that it generates. Something obvious might appear if you are lucky.
Use the site:domain.com -inurl:www and the site:www.domain.com searches in Google to list your pages. Make sure that all your titles and descriptions (snippets) are different.
Check and see if a lot of pages are hidden behind a In order to show you the most relevant results, we have omitted some entries very similar to the 818 already displayed. If you like, you can repeat the search with the omitted results included. link at the end of the SERPs.