I have a website that has multiple links in the footer similar to:
City1 ¦ City2 ¦ City3 ¦ City4 ¦ City5... etc
The footer shows about 30 different cities. Each link to a State page. So, having multimple links in one page, going to the same page... is that considered spam? Can that we harmful? I currently dont have a footer, and I thought adding one with links to the state pages would get these state pages indexed and ranked higher.
It's thought that multiple links to the same page get considered as a single link, so adding ten links is no better than having one link.
Spam is usually either to do with the content of a page (e.g. hidden text) or interlinking between domains (e.g. massive interlinked networks). I don't know of any particular spamming practices that you can do with linking between pages on a single domain.
If you're aiming to get a particular page ranked better, link to it from your most important pages, like your homepage, and don't link to the pages you don't want to rank well. The ranking points passed on from one page to another are dependent on the importance of the first page (higher passes on more points) and the number of links off that page (points are distributed evenly between links).
Remember that if you've designed the site so that it's more useful for your users then by definition it's not spamming.
>>Spam is .. interlinking between domains (e.g. massive interlinked networks)<<
So if I (i.e. same person or same company) has several domains such as city1.com, city2.com etc. as well as other domains such as hotels.com, restaurants.com, lawyers.com etc. and these domains cross link to each other, is that considered to be spamming? Mind you, the content of each site is different and relevant to that domain (i.e. pertains to that particular city or that particular business), but they are linked to one another as there is a many-to-many relationship.
Avoid hidden text or hidden links. Don't employ cloaking or sneaky redirects. Don't send automated queries to Google. Don't load pages with irrelevant words. Don't create multiple pages, subdomains, or domains with substantially duplicate content. Avoid "doorway" pages created just for search engines, or other "cookie cutter" approaches such as affiliate programs with little or no original content.
If your multiple domains are for the purpose of increasing PR then it's spam. If your multiple domains are genuinely independent sites with unique content on each then I shouldn't think there'd be a problem.